The below topics describe the programming language basics.


  1. Computer
  2. Machine Language
  3. Translators
  4. Micro Processor
  5. Types of Programming Languages
  6. Difference between ROM & RAM


Computers are electronic devices which can understand only two things.

  1. Presence of voltage(Represented by 1)
  2. Absence of voltage(Represented by 0)

1’s and 0’s are called as bits (or)binary digits.


Our programming language statements (c,c++,java…etc) are not directly understandable to the computer or processor.We should convert program statements into bits or 0’s and 1’s i.e into machine language.

Machine Language:

Representing the instructions and data in the form of bits(0’s and 1’s) are called “machine language“.


Translator is a program which converts program statements into machine language.

We have three types of translators.

  1. Compiler
  2. Interpreter
  3. Assembler

Compiler Vs Interpreter

Compiler Interpreter
It takes entire program as a input It takes line by line instructions
Intermediate object code is generated No intermediate object code is generated
Conditional control statements executes faster Conditional control statements executes slower
Machine level instructions are stored in Hard disk. Machine level instructions are stored in RAM.
Machine code is not deleted after program gets executed,since it is stored in disk. Machine code is deleted after program gets executed,since it is stored in RAM.

Micro Processor

  1. Micro processor is heart of any normal computer,Whether it is a desktop,laptop or server.
  2. It is also called as C.P.U(Central Processing Unit)
  3. It is a computational engine,Which is fabricated on a single chip.
  4. Every micro processor can recognize a group of instructions called instruction set.
  5. We have so many processors developed by many companies.
  6. Example:Intel,AMD,Spark. etc.

  7. The first micro processor in the world 4004.
  8. The instructions,Which can understandable by intel processor may not understandable to the AMD processor.Similarly the instructions which can be recognized by AMD processor may not be understandable to the spark processor.

Types of Languages

  1. Low level languages.
  2. Middle level languages.
  3. High level language.

Types of Programming Languages

Low Level Languages:

  1. It is a machine understandable language
  2. A micro processor can only understand low level languages
  3. Presently, programmers never write machine level languages directly because it is difficult to write and requires more efforts to debug.
  4. Example:Assembly Languages,Machine Languages.

Middle Level Languages:

  1. Middle level languages are close to machine as well as human beings.
  2. ‘C’ language is example of middle level language,Using ‘C’ language we can develop system programming and application programs.
  3. Example: C.

High Level Languages:

  1. First high level languages were designed or developed in 1959’s.
  2. High level languages are “Human understandable Languages”.
  3. High level languages are developed for GUI.
  4. Since High level languages are close to human .So we can write program easily.
  5. Example: JAVA.

Difference between RAM and ROM

It stands for Random Access Memory. It stands for Read Only Memory.
Useful for operating system,programs and processors . It contains pre-written instructions,Which are useful for booting of the computer
RAM is temporary Memory,that means data and instructions will be deleted when shutdown the system The data and instructions will not be deleted, when you shutdown the system
Example:SRAM(static RAM),DRAM(dynamic RAM) Example:PROM(programmable ROM),EPROM(erasable programmable ROM)